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Course Descriptions

Core Courses

INTR 6001 - WTO & THE INTERNATIONAL TRADING SYSTEM

 This module has been designed primarily as an introduction to the overall Masters Programme.  It therefore covers a broad spectrum of issues, dealing with the evolution of international trade; the World Trade Organisation; the institutional setting for international co-operation, regionalism and the international trading system, the Caribbean in world trade; globalisation; gains from trade and the theoretical underpinnings; trade, growth and distribution; alternative development strategies; and the participation of small, vulnerable economies in the International Trading System. Many of these issues will be taken up in more detail either in core courses or electives.  The approach adopted is an eclectic one in terms of taking on board the broad range of views that exists about issues confronting the international trading system, at the same time as providing basic material and information in all the areas covered.  Students are actively encouraged to participate in discussion and debate during the lectures.
 
Assessment for this module will be based on a single paper dealing with a subject covered by the module.

 
INTR 6002 - INTERNATIONAL TRADE THEORY AND POLICY
 
This module provides a fundamental understanding of the principles and practices of international trade in the global economy.  It covers international trade theory (classical, neoclassical and modern) and then proceeds to the study of international trade policy, examining the issues of trade and international inequality within the context of growth and development, economic integration, and globalization with emphasis on the problems of groupings of developing countries. It explores related issues such as free trade versus protectionism, current issues in the multilateral trading system and US trade policy.  The course maintains a perspective on the Caribbean.

Assessment will be based on the completion of problem sets and an examination or research paper.

 
INTR 6003 - QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR TRADE POLICY ANALYSIS
 
This module provides students with a range of quantitative techniques for analyzing trade and other economic data used in the formulation and analysis of international trade policy.  The course covers definitions and sources of trade data; index numbers and trade indicators; regression analysis; economic accounting systems; computable general equilibrium modelling and game theory. The objective is to equip students to:
 
  • identify and understand national, regional and international sources of trade and other economic data;
  • use the data to construct indicators for trade policy analysis and to design trade policy measures;
  • analyse the effects of trade policy on the economy;
  • understand the interdependence of trade policy actions.
 
Assessment will be based on problem sets and a short research paper with a final written examination.
 
 
INTR 6005 - GLOBALISATION AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE
 
The module explores the concept of ‘global governance' and the challenges to multilateral cooperation posed by ideology, cultural difference, power and national interests. The objective is to familiarize students with the historical organization of the global political economy alongside an understanding of the rise of neo-liberalism; as well as encourage them to examine how governance arose as a concept and how it is increasingly global and transnational, transcending national governments, democratic institutions and citizens. Students will be challenged to analyze the recent evolution of multilateral trade agreements, maritime agreements (as these relate to Caribbean Sea Lanes and security issues) and financial architectures; and to understand the various debates supporting and contesting globalization as a concept. 
 
Assessment will be based on class participation and two research papers.


INTR 6006 - INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW
 
This module examines public international law in the context of international trading relations. It is to that end divided into four parts. In Part 1, the structural relevance of public international law to trading operations is discussed by way of introduction, in the light of two fundamental issues: the normal concentration of public international law on relations between states at the governmental level rather than private commercial actors, and the relevance of international law in matters before nations courts, the normal fora for business litigation. This is followed by an outline discussion of the importance for international trading relations of major issues of public international law of general application is discussed and outlined. Part II examines the other regimes of trade liberalization to which the Anglophone Caribbean states are parties, actually or in contemplation. Part III provides an introduction to the substantive obligations of member states of the World Trade Organization. Part IV examines the public international law governing settlement of disputes, with special reference to the WTO system and the original jurisdiction of the Caribbean Court of Justice.
 
Assessment will be a final written examination and Research Paper.
 
 
INTR 6112 - TRADE IN GOODS – MARKET ACCESS
 
An understanding of trade policy in goods of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is critical for the Caribbean policy maker. This module examines the provisions of the CARICOM Treaty which govern the trade in goods between CARICOM States; the provisions of the CARICOM Treaty which address the external trade policy of CARICOM and its impact on the external trade relations of CARICOM Member States; the treaties dealing with trade in goods established between CARICOM and third countries; the unilateral arrangements under which certain third countries accord preferential access to exports of goods from the member states of CARICOM; and current CARICOM external trade negotiations. It also examines the impact of the provisions of the WTO on all these arrangements will be identified and discussed.
 
Assessment will be based on class participation, presentation on a research topic, in-class examination and research paper.

INTR 6114 - INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN SERVICES
 
The module seeks to inform students of the global regime governing trade in services and provide them with a background on issues regarding services trade negotiations in various forums as well as policy issues in the development of service industries in the Caribbean. It will cover services in the WTO negotiations under the GATS frameworks, the Free Trade Area of the Americas, and bilateral negotiations between CARICOM and the European Union. Upon completion of this course, students should have a critical appreciation of the current regime for regulation of international trade in services, key issues in new rule making and market access issues in specific countries relevant to CARICOM service suppliers. This will prepare them for analytical and policy formulation roles regarding trade in services in government or the private sector.
 
Assessment will be based on an in-class assignment and a final written examination.
 
 
INTR 6131 – RESEARCH PAPER
 
The research paper (10,000 words min. to 20,000 max.), carries a credit weighting of 9 credits and may be on a specific issue of concern to a Caribbean country or the region and would contribute to the overall trade policy agenda which is being pursued. The research paper will conform to the requirements of the Masters in International Trade Policy programme and the School of Graduate Studies and Research. Students will be exposed to research methods proposals and to assist in the completion of the Research paper.
 
The research paper is generally linked to the internship so that students will intern in an organization which best suits their research topic.
 
The Internship component for the programme is for a maximum of three (3) months.



Electives 

INTR 6007 - INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS AND ADVOCACY
 
The module is designed to be an intensive practical workshop to assist students to develop negotiating skills in the international trading arena.  The goal of this course is to provide students with a grounding in the fundamentals of interest-based negotiation principles and techniques. A collateral goal is to provide students with exposure to negotiation, mediation, and WTO dispute resolution scenarios that will provide a basis of understanding of government and private sector interests, roles, and practical techniques in trade negotiations.
 
At the completion of this course students should have learned:
 
  • What are the elements that constitute a successful negotiating strategy?
  • What factors have to be considered in designing a strategy?
  • The differences between a zero-sum type of negotiation as opposed to an interest-based or mutual-gains negotiation?
  • What is different about rule-making negotiations?
 
Learning exercises will include simulations of bilateral and multilateral negotiations.
 
Assessment will be based on performance in the simulations and on an evaluation of their course journal recording the analysis of negotiating issues assigned in class and the preparation of class simulations of negotiations, dispute settlement, and press conferences.
 
INTR 6012- PUBLIC PROCUREMENT: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE CARIBBEAN 
The course introduces participants to the issues of relevance to the conduct of public procurement, which accounts for some 30% of GDP in the Caribbean. It discusses how
procurement can be used to promote sustainable economic and social development, as well as to safeguard the environment, while ensuring transparency, competition and integrity in the award of public contracts.
The course covers the full procurement cycle as well as recent innovations in procurement policy, such as public private partnerships and e-procurement. The regional and international trade dimensions of procurement policy are also covered. These modern public procurement strategies are generally addressed as they apply in international best practice, as well as examination and analyses of their suitability/adaptability to the Caribbean context.
The entire course is grounded in the specific conditions in small, developing and vulnerable economies, as the relevance of the broader canon of literature of public procurement, which has a larger developed economy context, will be interpreted in the Caribbean context.

Assessment will be based on class participation and assignments. 



INTR 6111 - BUSINESS, GOVERNMENT AND INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY
 
Governments determine the essential framework of laws and policies within which business must operate, but business can influence both government decisions and the effectiveness of their outcomes.  The increasing integration of the global economy determines that both domestic and international forces shape this interactive relationship. This module examines the relationship between business and government in the international economy, exploring the role of various institutions, processes and actors in different countries, including the role of international negotiations and agreements.  The module will survey recent trends affecting international business-government relations and utilize specific cases to study their application across a range of issues, including free trade agreements, investment project assessment, political risk analysis, and international economic negotiations.
 
Assessment will be based on class participation, presentation of briefs, group project and an examination.

 

INTR 6113 - REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT

 
This module provides an analysis of regional integration as a development strategy especially for small developing countries.  It explores: theories of regional integration arrangements; free trade areas; customs unions; common markets; economic unions; monetary integration and fiscal harmonisation; factor mobility and investment; regionalism vs. globalisation; WTO provisions on regional integration arrangements; and the developmental impact of regional integration; case studies of regional integration arrangements: OECS; CARICOM/CSME; ACS; NAFTA/FTAA; European Union; MERCOSUR; ASEAN, etc. At the end of the course students would be able to understand the nature of regional integration arrangements in the context of international trade policy; the principles underlying these arrangements; the structure of such arrangements and the developmental role of such arrangements. Students would be exposed to a range of cases of regional integration.
 
Assessment will be based on a research paper and in class presentations.


INTR 6116 - COMPETITION LAW AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE POLICY
 
There is the view that if firms are forced to compete against each other, then they would find ways to attract customers, such as selling at lower prices, producing a better quality product, creating a different product through innovation etc. This would result in benefits to consumers. On the other hand, if firms colluded to fix prices, or share markets, so that they don't compete against each other, or abuse a dominant position in the market by excluding rivals, then prices would go above the market value and consumers would pay more or get lesser quality goods, and entrepreneurship would be stifled. The issues are not esoteric, but grounded firmly in everyday life, and everyone is affected, because we are all consumers.
 
Competition law was developed to protect competition in the market by prohibiting firms from engaging in activities that reduce or limit competition between and amongst themselves. This module provides grounding in the theory of firm behaviour in the discipline of industrial organization, and explains the provisions of competition law which prohibits anti-competitive agreements, abuse of a dominant market position, and the regulation of mergers to prevent excessive concentration of market power. It covers application of the law at the domestic, regional and international levels. Examples are provided of enforcement of the law by competition authorities, such as against cartels, both at the national and international levels.
 
The issues are brought alive through video presentations of international cartels caught in the act, simulation exercises in which students role play a case scenario involving firms being investigated for anti-competitive conduct, and case scenarios discussed in classes. At the end of the module, students are expected to have both a theoretical grounding of competition law and a good understanding of its application. Given that all CSM countries are required to enact competition law, and that at present, Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana have enacted laws, and the rest of the region is in the process of doing so, this module is very timely in that there is an urgent need for skilled personnel in competition law in the region in the public and private sectors and the legal profession.
 
Assessment will be based on a final written examination.

 

 

INTR - 6118: CONTEMPORARY CARIBBEAN TRADE POLICY ISSUES

 
The module focuses on the structural characteristics of Caribbean economies and of the critical issues pertaining to international trade policy as it impacts on the growth and development of the region. It places Caribbean economies within the context of Small Island Developing states (SIDS), third-world, developing, and emerging-market countries. The performance of Caribbean economies in the contemporary phase of globalisation (from the 1970s to present day) will be analysed, emphasising patterns of growth and economic/social development at the macroeconomic, sectoral, and micro level. Emphasis will also be placed on recent policy- based research to provide case studies.
 
Assessment will be a short research paper and a final written examination.
 
INTR 6119 – TRADE, GENDER AND EMPLOYMENT
 
Over the past two decades the Caribbean has faced fundamental changes in terms of trade and in the rules governing their engagement in the international trading arena. The erosion of preferential trading arrangements, the results of the Uruguay round, the creation of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy, the launch of the Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations and the signing of the EU-ACP EPA, all demand that the impact on gender of the changes in the traditional terms of trade for the region be addressed. This module seeks to provide an understanding of the technical and political dimensions of international trade topics from a gender and development perspective. Students will be encouraged to participate in discussions on analysing and mainstreaming gender issues into trade and development policy.
 
Assessment will be based on a research paper.
 
 
INTR   6120   - TRADE & TOURISM
 
The objective of the course is to provide a deeper understanding of the structural characteristics and nexus between trade and tourism with particular reference to Caribbean economies and of the critical issues pertaining to international trade policy and its impact on the growth and development of the region.  The course will be placed squarely in the context of the globalization trends, which have impacted on the Caribbean, the drive towards building viable services-based economies as well as examining new approaches and methodologies for addressing tourism in the context of international trade negotiations. The course places Caribbean economies within the context of small-island developing states (SIDS), third-world, developing, and emerging-market countries.
 
Assessment will be based on a research paper.
 
 
INTR 6121 – TRADE & INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
 
The module will focus on the role and significance of intellectual property rights in the global trading system.  Specific attention will be paid to the provisions of the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), including relevant aspects of the Doha Declaration, and to regional and bilateral trade agreements, in particular, the Draft Chapter on Intellectual Property Rights in the FTAA Agreement and bilateral agreements on intellectual property rights concluded between some CARICOM states and the U.S.A.  The response of CARICOM States to the TRIPS Agreement will be examined and key issues in the debate on intellectual property rights and development will be critically assessed.
 
Assessment will be based on a final written examination.

INTR 6125 COMPETITION LAW AND THE ECONOMICS OF COMPETITION FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 
The programme aims to deepen students’ knowledge of the provisions of competition law, building on the foundation that was provided at the Level 2 workshops or the electives in competition in the MSc in Trade Policy and the LLM at the Law Faculty at Cave Hill.

Students will be taught to apply economic reasoning and tests in investigation of competition cases. No prior knowledge of economics is required. Finally, the programme will promote increased understanding of how to interpret economic evidence, prepare lawyers for presenting economic evidence in court, dealing with economic experts, and use of the Daubert Jurisprudence that developed in the US.
 
The entire programme is grounded in the specific conditions in developing countries and small economies, use of cases and materials from developing countries in tutorials and encouraging a critical approach in reading materials, seeking relevance to one’s own situation.

Assessment will be based on class participation and assignments.



INTR 6126 CUSTOMS ADMINISTRATION AND TRADE FACILITATION
The course aims to deepen students’ knowledge of the customs administration and trade facilitation practices among CARIFORUM countries and their role in improving the domestic and international competitiveness of CARIFORUM-based firms.
 
There will be a particular focus on implementation issues with respect to the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the EU and CARIFORUM countries’ international trade obligations more generally.
 
The course will cover a number of key technical core Customs topics with students having the opportunity to specialize in three related areas.
 
Topics include:
  • · International customs and trade facilitation instruments;
  • · Managing customs administration human resources;
  • · International best practices in customs operations; and
  • · Intelligence management.
 
Assessment will be based on class participation and assignments.