Faculty of Science and Technology
Shane Austin Shane Austin, Dr.

C.M. Sean Carrington C.M. Sean Carrington , Professor of Plant Biology

Angela Alleyne Angela Alleyne, Dr.

Isabelle Gouirand, Dr.

Francis B. Lopez Francis B. Lopez, Dr.

Julia Horrocks Julia Horrocks , Professor of Conservation Ecology

Bidyut Mohapatra Bidyut Mohapatra, Dr.

Marilaine Mota-Meira Marilaine Mota-Meira, Dr.

Henri Vallès Henri Vallès, Dr.

Thea Scantlebury-Manning      Thea Scantlebury-Manning , Dr.

Emma Smith


Emma Smith
Title: Dr.
Department: BCS
Discipline: Chemistry
Additional Titles: Environmental Science Coordinator
Qualifications: BSc (Hons) Oceanography with Chemistry (Liverpool)
MSc (Distinction) Marine Resource Development and Protection (Heriot-Watt)
PhD Environmental Sciences (Plymouth/Plymouth Marine Laboratory)
Contact: 246-417-4838
Teaching Areas: Environmental Chemistry (CHEM3515 Co-ordinator)
Oceanography (ERSC2003 Co-ordinator)
Biochemistry (BIOC2352 Toxicology section)
Earth Science Project (ERSC3900 Supervisor)
Biography: I received my degree in Oceanography and Chemistry from the University of Liverpool in 1994 and my Masters in Marine Resource Development and Protection with distinction from Heriot Watt University in 1996.  My PhD thesis Unresolved Complex Mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons in the marine environment: solubility, toxicity and photodegradation studies was carried out at Plymouth University in conjunction with Plymouth Marine Laboratory.
and won the SETAC Young Scientist Award when this work was presented at the 10th European Meeting and 3rd World Congress in 2000. https://www.setac.org/?page=SEAwardsYoungS
I then carried on working at Plymouth University in the Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group http://www.research.plymouth.ac.uk/pegg/ on the characterisation of bioaccumulated and unidentified agent(s) causing reduced scope for growth in mussels, and the potential ecological effects of chemically dispersed and biodegraded crude oils.
I then moved to the University of Toronto within the Environmental NMR Centre evaluating climatic controls on soil organic carbon composition and potential responses to global warming.
Following this I worked with Professor Jamie Lead at the University of Birmingham implementing the Nanonet project, a Knowledge Transfer (KT) Network in the area of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) in the natural aquatic environment.
I took up my current position as Lecturer in Environmental Chemistry in 2008 and have been appointed as an expert of the United Nations World Ocean Assessment.
My research focusses on a wide range of fate and effect of different complex mixtures in the environment. I have recently (September 2014) been awarded special leave for scholarly purposes to develop the research currently underway in my group and utilize new instrumentation (GC-MS/MS and LC-QToF) to determine levels of persistent, as well as emerging contaminants in the region. My lab was recently donated a mercury analyzer by Prof Eric Dewailly from Laval University that was previously used in the Atlantis Mobile Laboratory, to continue our work on mercury levels in the region.

Current Graduate students:
Collin Scantlebury: Government funded PhD.
Allelopathy in recycled green waste from Barbados.
Graduate research award to carry out research in the UK with Dr Vera Thoss
Lisa Sandy UWI scholarship MPhil.
Passive sampling of the marine environment emerging contaminants.
Emerging Leaders of the Americas Program funding for study in Canada with Professor Chris Metcalfe
Caribbean Ecohealth Program funding and graduate research award for consumables.
Lionel Sobers Government funded MPhil (part-time)
Pesticides in the soil and groundwater of Barbados.
Graduate research award for consumables.
Ryan Als Government funded PhD (part-time)
Phytoremediation of Hydrocarbon Polluted Sites in Barbados.
Graduate research award for consumables.
Lyndon Robertson UWI scholarship Phd.
Environmental Toxicology of Antifouling Paints in the Caribbean.
Graduate research award for consumables.

Diorys Perez UWI scholarship PhD.
Linking coral disease to land based sources of pollution
Graduate studies awards for consumables and to attend QPCR for coral biologists course at Mote Marine Lab)
Caribbean Ecohealth Program (CEHP) Affiliate Member
The CEHP is a Canadian-funded initiative focused on the integration of environment and health research in the CARICOM. The Atlantis Mobile Laboratory as its functional unit was stationed in Barbados for 2 years (2010-2012) conducting research on burden of illness and persistent pollutants in the environment.
A film of its work throughout the Caribbean region can found here:

A report of the oceans and human health course that was run as part of its program can be found: click here »
Collaboration with Caribbean Institute for Metrology and Hydrology on OAS sustainability grant on Assessment of the Effects of Drainage Wells (Suck Wells) and Karst Sinkholes on the Groundwater Quality of Barbados’. Following on from this Megan Cox will be a visiting scholar in my lab to complete her work from her Fulbright Scholarship: click here »
Project partner for OUTREACH ERC European research council grant to look at ‘overlooked, unresolved toxic organic pollutants: resolution, identification, measurement, and toxicity.’ PI Professor Steve Rowland, Plymouth University. http://www.plymouth.ac.uk/staff/srowland#

Undergraduate Project Supervision:
These projects run every semester and are designed to expose the students to environmental research techniques, many being carried out with local collaborators or stakeholders with a research need, for example Sustainable Recycling Barbados Centre, Bellairs Marine Institute, Berger Paints Barbados Ltd.
Successfully completed project titles:
Water Quality Analysis: Investigation and Comparison of Methods used for BOD, COD and TDS Testing.
An Investigation into the removal of nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite ions from aqueous solutions using novel chitosan/co-polymer blend beads.
Methods of tannin analysis in mulch products.
Quantifying the different forms of phosphate and understanding their impact on coral reefs around the coast of Barbados.
Analysis of water quality in Holetown Gully.
Quantification of phosphates in wastewater streams.
Chemical characterization of the effects of mulch products on lettuce seed germination.
Chemical characterization of the effects of amended mulch on lettuce seed germination.
Chemical characterization of the effects of mulch components on lettuce seed germination.
Water Quality Monitoring for Four Sites on the West Coast of Barbados Analysis of lead in freshwater samples and leachate samples from Barbados.
An updated mercury inventory for  Barbados o 2014.
Mercury content in fish and its implication for human consumption.
Determination of total mercury levels in tuna by cold vapour atomic spectroscopy Analysis of mercury found in species of fish caught in Barbados waters.
Total mercury determination in the Mangrove Pond Landfill.
A mercury inventory for Barbados.
Moving towards ISO 14001 Environmental Aspects and Impacts of the Production Processes of Berger Paints Barbados Limited (internship).
The Environmental Impact of the Post Manufacture Processes in Paint Production at Berger Paints Barbados Limited (internship).
Air quality monitoring in Barbados.
Analysis of tar balls found on the south coast of Barbados.
Characterization of tar balls found on the east coast using aromatic biomarkers.
Identification and classification of tar balls found on the east coast of Barbado.s
Characterization and Source Identification of PAHs in soil samples.
How tourism affects the marine environment – collaboration with Department of Management.

Dewailly E, Rouja P, Forde M, Peek-Ball C, Côté S, Smith E, Drescher O, Roberstson, L (2012) Evaluation of a Public Health Intervention to Lower Mercury Exposure from Fish Consumption in Bermuda. PLoS ONE 7(10): e47388.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047388                          
Environmental and Human Health Effects of Nanomaterials (2009) eds Lead, J.L. and Smith, E.L. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN: 978-1-4051-7634-7.          
Simpson, A.J., Simpson, M.J., Smith, E.L., and Kelleher, B. (2007) Estimation of microbially derived inputs to soil organic matter using NMR spectroscopy: Are current estimations too low? Environmental Science and Technology, 41 (23) 8070-8076.
DOI: 10.1021/es071217x                              
Simpson, A.J., Song, G., Smith, E.L., Lam, B., Novotny, E.H., and Hayes, M.H.B. (2007) Unravelling the Structural Components of Soil Humin using Solution State NMR. Environmental Science and Technology, 41 (3) 876-883.
DOI: 10.1021/es061576c                                          

Scarlett A., Canty M. N., Smith E. L., Rowland S. J. and Galloway T. S. (2007) Can amphipod behaviour help to predict chronic toxicity of sediments? Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 12 (3) 506.

DOI: 10.1080/10807030701341035                           

Scarlett, A., Galloway, T.S., Canty, M., Smith, E.L. and Rowland, S.J. (2007) Method for assessing the chronic toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment-associated contaminants using the amphipod Corophium volutator. Marine Environmental Research, 63 (5) 457-470.
DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2006.12.006
Reineke, V., Rullkotter, J., Smith, E.L. and Rowland, S.J. (2006) Toxicity and compositional analysis of aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of two pairs of undegraded and biodegraded crude oils from the Santa Maria (California) and Vienna basins. Organic Geochemistry 37, 1885-1899.
DOI: 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2006.07.017                 
Smith, E. (2005) Water Analysis: Oil Pollution. Encyclopedia of Analytical Science (Second Edition) Editors-in-Chief: Paul Worsfold, Alan Townshend, and Colin Poole, Elsevier. pp 330-335. ISBN: 978-0-12-369397-6
DOI: 10.1016/B0-12-369397-7/00660-9
Scarlett, A., Canty, M., Nilsson, J., Smith, E.L., Rowland, S.J. and Galloway, T.S. (2005).  Comparative toxicity of two oil dispersants, Superdispersant-25 and Corexit 9527, to a range of coastal species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24 (5) 1219-1227.
DOI: 10.1897/04-334R.1                                           
Crowe, T., Smith, E.L., Donkin, P., Barnaby, D. and Rowland, S.J. (2004) Measurements of sublethal effects on individual organisms indicate community-level impacts of pollution. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41 (1) 114-123.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2004.00882.x                  
Donkin, P., Smith, E.L. and Rowland, S.J. (2003) Toxic effects of unresolved complex mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons accumulated by mussels, Mytilus edulis, from contaminated field sites. Environmental Science and Technology 37 (21) 4825-4830.
DOI: 10.1021/es021053e                                           Impact Factor: 5.26 Citations: 37

Rowland, S., Donkin, P., Smith, E. and Wraige, E. (2001) Aromatic hydrocarbon 'humps' in the marine environment: unrecognized toxins? Environmental Science and Technology  35 (13) 2640-2644.
DOI: 10.1021/es0018264                                          
Smith, E., Wraige, E., Donkin, P. and Rowland, S. (2001) Hydrocarbon humps in the marine environment: synthesis, toxicity and aqueous solubility of monoaromatic compounds. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20 (11) 2428–2432.
DOI: 10.1002/etc.5620201105                                  
Smith, E.L., Rowland, S.J., Galloway, T.S.  and Scarlett, A. (2006) Potential Ecological Effects of Chemically Dispersed and Biodegraded Oils: Evaluation of components and concentrations relevant to policy decisions. Final Project Report for Defra/MCA/Dti/MMS.
Smith, E.L., Canty, M.N.; Scarlett, A., Galloway, T.S. and Rowland, S.J. (2005) Potential Ecological Effects of Chemically Dispersed and Biodegraded Crude Oils. Final Project Report for Defra/MCA/Dti/MMS.
Crowe, T., Smith, E., Donkin, P., Barnaby, D. and Rowland, S. (2002) Relationships between scope for growth of mussels, unresolved complex mixtures of hydrocarbons and diversity and structure of intertidal macrofaunal communities. Small Ecological Project Grant Report No. 1729.
Donkin, P., Smith, E.L. and Rowland, S.J. (2002) Characterisation of bioaccumulated and unidentified agent(s) causing reduced scope for growth in mussels. Final Project Report for Defra Ref CDEP 84/5/267.

North Carolina State University January 2014 Invited Oral Presentation “Fates of Complex Mixtures in the Environment: Past, Present and Beyond.”
Society of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology 33rd North American Meeting, Long Beach, California, 11-15 November 2012. Poster Presentation: “Monitoring Chemical Contamination in the Coastal Waters of the Caribbean using Passive Samplers - The Barbados Experience.”
Teasdale-Corti Program Symposium “Innovations in Global Health Research – Global social justice and the social determinants of health: Setting the Course for the Future” Ottawa, Canada, 30 September – 5 October 2012.  Group Oral Presentation: “CEHP Achievements.”
6th Caribbean Environmental Forum and Exhibition, and 16th Annual Wider Caribbean Waste Management Conference, St Kitts and Nevis, 21-25 May 2012. Oral Presentation in absentia “Passive sampling of the marine environment – The Barbados Experience.’
UNEP Regional Experts Workshop on Environmental Monitoring and Assessment in the Wider Caribbean Region, Jamaica, 26-30 September, 2011 Invited Oral Presentation: “Emerging Marine Environmental Pollutants.”
American Society of Limnology and Oceanography and North American Benthological Society (ASLO/NABS) Aquatic Sciences Meeting, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 6-11 June 2010. Poster presentation: “Groundwater Inputs to a mangrove and sedge wetland, Graeme Hall, southern Barbados.
Campus Research Day, FPAS, UWI, February 2011. Oral presentation “How does tourism link to environmental chemistry?”
Oceans and Human Health Training Course, University of West Indies, Barbados, 22-26 November 2010. Oral presentation: “Contaminants in the Environment and Marine Ecosystems.”
FWDfest Bellairs Research Festival, Bellairs Research Institute, Barbados, May 2010. Poster presentation: “Passive sampling in the marine environment.”
3rd International Conference on Environmental Effects of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials, University of Birmingham, U.K. 15-16th September, 2008. One day course on ‘Fate and Effect and Engineered Nanoparticles in the Environment’ 14th September. Oral Presentation “Risk Assessment of Nanoparticles.”
EMPA nanoECO: Nanoparticles in the Environment – Implications and Applications, Monte Verita, Ascona, Switzerland, 2-7 March, 2008. Poster Presentation: “Manufactured Nanoparticles in the natural aquatic environment: Consideration of physico-chemical properties in relation to ecotoxicology “
SCI Collloid and Surface Chemistry Group Nanoparticles 2008, Bradford, U.K., 4-5 February, 2008. Poster Presentation: “Nanonet: Engineered nanoparticles in the natural aquatic environment.“
MOOT 19th Annual Meeting, University of Guelph, Canada, 23-24 Sept 2006. Poster presentation: “Understanding the Reactivity of Environmental Contaminants through Epitope Mapping.”
Society of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology 15th Annual European Meeting, Lille, France, 22-26 May 2005. Oral presentation: “Potential Ecological Effects of Chemically Dispersed and Biodegraded Oils.”
Moscow State University, Russia, March 2005. Invited oral presentation: “Toxicity and Characterisation of Unresolved Complex Mixtures.”
Society of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology 14th Annual European Meeting, Environmental Science Solutions, Prague, Czech Republic, 18-22 April 2004. Oral presentation: “Potential Ecological Effects of Chemically Dispersed and Biodegraded Oils.”
British Organic Geochemistry 15th Annual Meeting, Plymouth, U.K. 8-9 July 2003. Oral presentation. “Potential Ecological Effects of Chemically Dispersed and Biodegraded Oils.”
 British Organic Geochemical Society 14th Annual Meeting, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, U.K., 2-3 July 2002. Oral presentation by colleague. "Resolving the Unresolvable?" [Ancient Biomolecules 4, 95-96 (2002)].
1st International Symposium on Comprehensive Multidimensional Gas Chromatography, Volendam, The Netherlands, 6-7 March 2003. Poster presentation: "GCxGC-ToF-MS Identification of Compounds in the Toxic Hydrocarbon Unresolved Complex Mixture (UCM) of Crude Oils"
International Symposium on the Environment & Analytical Chemistry (ISEAC 32), Plymouth, U.K., 17-21 June 2002. Oral presentation: "Forgotten Organic Pollutants: Unresolved Aromatic Hydrocarbons."
European Meeting of Environmental Chemists (EMEC 4), Plymouth, U.K. 12-15th December 2003. Oral presentation. “Toxicity and Characterisation of Unresolved Complex Mixtures.”
Royal Society of Chemistry: Emerging Young Professionals 2002, Bournemouth, U.K., 27-28 April 2002. Invited oral presentation: "One Hump or Two - Unresolved Complex Mixtures of Hydrocarbons in the Marine Environment?”
International Workshop on the Application of Normal Phase Fractionation in Effect Directed Identification Studies, 26 April 2002, The Hague, The Netherlands. Poster presentation: "The Use of Normal Phase HPLC in Effect Directed Identification Studies Using the Mussel Mytilus edulis."
SET for Britain: Young Scientists Meeting, House of Commons, London, U.K., 18 March 2002. Poster presentation: "Has the Marine Environment got the Hump?”
Defra Marine Environment Seminar. Plymouth, UK, Sept 2001.  Oral presentation: “Characterisation of Bioaccumulated Agents Causing Reduced Scope for Growth.”
British Organic Geochemical Society 13th Annual Meeting, Gregynog, Wales, U.K., 23-25 July 2001. Poster presentation: "Laboratory Synthesised Model Unresolved Complex Mixture (UCM) Hydrocarbons: A Biodegradation Study".
 Society of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology 3rd World Congress, Global Environmental Issues in the 21st Century: Problems, Causes and Solutions, Brighton, U.K., 21-25 May 2000. Oral presentation: "Unresolved Complex Mixtures of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Marine Environment". Received the Proctor and Gamble Young Scientist Award for best platform presentation.
Society of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology 18th Annual Meeting, Bridging the Global Environment: Technology, Communication and Education, San Francisco, CA, U.S.A., 16-20 November 1997. Poster presentation: "Photooxidation of Unresolved Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Characterisation and Environmental Toxicity".


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Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences
Phone: (246) 417-4324/4323/4322 Fax:(246) 417-4325 Email: bcs@cavehill.uwi.edu